Fernando Henrique Cardoso was President of Brazil between 1995 and 2003. He is a sociologist, and the author of several books about social change and the political constraints of the development of Brazil and Latin America. He has a degree in sociology from the University of Sao Paulo (USP), where he became a professor in 1953. He is currently a visiting professor at the Thomas J. Watson Jr. Institute for International Studies at Brown University, in the United States. He has been a visiting professor at various academic centres in Europe and the United States, including the Collège of Paris, University of Cambridge, University of Berkeley and Stanford University.